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  kashmala - 11/08/06 05:04
  At autopsy, the kidneys of a 44-year-old woman who died suddenly are found to be of normal size. Their surfaces appear finely granular. There are small hemorrhages noted. The cortices appear pale. Microscopically, many small renal arteries and arterioles demonstrate concentric intimal thickening with marked lumenal narrowing. These findings are most likely to be present as a result of which of the following underlying diseases?

A Amyloidosis

B Systemic lupus erythematosus

C Scleroderma

D Rheumatoid arthritis

E Viral hepatitis

F Diabetes mellitus
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  frodo - 11/08/06 05:24
  b ...?  
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  cd45 - 11/08/06 05:27

u really like scleroderma dont u kash...
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  kashmala - 11/08/06 05:33
  hehehehehe...yeah forum queen u r abs rite
just like u love pharma weird drugs
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  biochem510 - 11/08/06 16:56
  can someone please explain why the answer is Scleroderma plz  
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  kashmala - 11/08/06 17:27
  Scleroderma is a connective tissue disorder resulting in a progressive fibrosis of skin and internal organs. The genetic background is not clear. The microvascular system is one of the first targets involved (damage of capillaries, enhanced expression of adhesion molecules interacting with lymphocytes, perivascular infiltrates as starting points for tissue fibrosis). The immune system is unbalanced (selection of T-cell subpopulations, elevated serum levels of several cytokines, occurrence of autoantigens to topoisomerase I, centromeric proteins and RNA polymerases). As far as autoimmunity is concerned the triggering autoantigen is still unknown. Development of connective tissue fibrosis is prominent (subpopulations of fibroblasts with disturbed regulation of collagen turnover by TGF-beta, CTGF and collagen receptors (alpha1beta1, alpha2beta1)). Investigation of pathophysiology of scleroderma is effected by monitoring the serum levels for soluble mediators, by cell culture studies of affected and non-affected fibroblasts and EC, by studying environmentally induced forms of scleroderma and by studies using animal models  
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