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* 1. What?
  malak - 11/04/06 13:51
  1. What Salter-Harris fracture types are most at risk for long term joint/skeletal abnormalities?
Type 1 and type 2 fractures are generally associated with very good outcomes with non-surgical treatment (slipped capital femoral epiphyhsis is an exception). Type 3 and type 4 fractures extend through the epiphysis to the articular bone surface and therefore have a risk of chronic joint disability, they also may disrupt physis cartilage growth; surgical treatment is frequently required. Type 5 fractures disrupt physis cartilage growth and are associated with poor functional outcome (premature physis closure).

2. What is the typical presentation of Achilles tendon rupture?
Sudden onset of severe calf pain and inability to bear weight in a middle-aged male participating in a sport requiring jumping or other loading of the Achilles tendon with the ankle in dorsiflexion, especially with a history of Achilles tendonitis and corticosteroid injections. Patients report a loud popping sound and the sensation of being “kicked or shot” in the calf.

3. What are treatments for ruptured Achilles tendon?
Surgical reanastamosis or progressive casting over 6-12 weeks (long leg to short leg, plantarflexion to neutral ankle)

4. What are the three stages of Paget's disease of bone?
Early lytic or reabsorptive phase with excess and morphologically abnormal osteoclasts resulting in very high bone turnover, an intermediate "mixed" phase in which increased numbers of morphologically normal osteoblasts increase collagen deposition in a disorganized pattern and the third p hase (sclerotic phase) of disorganized bone formation (“woven” or mosaic pattern) allowing marrow infiltration with fibrous connective tissue and hypervascularization.

5. What are possible complications of Paget's disease?
Fractures, osteoarthritis, cranial nerve compression (especially CN VIII, resulting in sensorineural deafness), spinal nerve root compression, spinal stenosis, cauda equina syndrome, high output cardiac failure (from hypervascularity), facial/cranial deformities and sarcomatous transformation

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* Re:1. What?
  lody99 - 11/04/06 15:13
  thank y  
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