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* nbme # 2 block 3 -------q1 to q50
  drona99 - 03/13/11 06:05
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* Re:nbme # 2 block 3 -------q1 to q50
  drona99 - 03/13/11 06:06
  hey maryam im starting this block now..  
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* Re:nbme # 2 block 3 -------q1 to q50
  drona99 - 03/13/11 06:15
Attention and concentration --
1-repeat digit sequence backword
2-Subtract 7 from 100 and then continue to subtract

other tests
Orientation--- Tell me where you are and what day it is.
Language -----Name the object that I am holding.

Registration---- Repeat the names of these three objects.
Recall---------- After 5 min, recall the names of these three objects.
Construction ---Copy this design.

these are are mini mental scale and scoring is done-

Maximum total score = 30;
total score
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* Re:nbme # 2 block 3 -------q1 to q50
  drona99 - 03/13/11 06:21
  Maximum total score = 30;
total score less than 25 --suggests cognitive problems;
total score less than 20 --suggests significant impairment
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* Re:nbme # 2 block 3 -------q1 to q50
  drona99 - 03/13/11 06:47
  2-pandemic aka WORLDWIDE EPIDEMIC
pandemics occure due to genetic shift which occurs in H influenza A
Genetic shift also known as genetic reassortment
Occurs in segmented RNA
A-Two different strains of segmented RNA virus infect the same cells
Now there will shuffeling between these two strains producing new genetic combinations which result in new stable and dramatic changes.

Antigenic shift, however, occurs only in influenzavirus A because it infects more than just humans.
Flu strains are named after their types of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface proteins, so they will be called, for example, H3N2 for type-3 hemagglutinin and type-2 neuraminidase. When two different strains of influenza infect the same cell simultaneously, their protein capsids and lipid envelopes are removed, exposing their RNA, which is then transcribed to mRNA. The host cell then forms new viruses that combine their antigens; for example, H3N2 and H5N1 can form H5N2 this way. Because the human immune system has difficulty recognizing the new influenza strain, it may be highly dangerous.

c-eg- swine flu
bird flu
Genetic shift will require production of new virus

Gentic drift-=
minor mutations leading antigenic changes
can occure in influenza A;B;C OR any virus like HIV
no need of any new vaccine
leads to epidemics
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* Re:nbme # 2 block 3 -------q1 to q50
  drona99 - 03/13/11 07:35
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* Re:nbme # 2 block 3 -------q1 to q50
  drona99 - 03/13/11 07:43

recombinant human erythropoietin has revolutionized the treatment of anemia associated with chronic renal failure
side effects of erythropoetin

Erythropoietin can cause an increase in blood pressure, . Blood pressure should be monitored while on this medicine

A common side effect due to erythropoietin administration is pain or burning at the site of the injection. This can be decreased by making sure that the erythropoietin is at room temperature before giving the infection. Ice can be placed in the area of injection to numb it before receiving the shot, and the site of injection should be changed with each shot.

Common side effects of patients who receive erythropoietin include diarrhea and swelling.

Less common side effects in cancer patients include fever, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, shortness of breath, and weakness.

Seizures have been reported in patients with kidney failure
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* Re:nbme # 2 block 3 -------q1 to q50
  notimeforfun - 03/13/11 07:43
  drona 99 when are u taking ur step?  
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* Re:nbme # 2 block 3 -------q1 to q50
  drona99 - 03/13/11 07:46
  5--ff cleft lip and cleft palate -multifactorial inheritance.  
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* Re:nbme # 2 block 3 -------q1 to q50
  drona99 - 03/13/11 07:49
  6--AA -femoral artery to apex of lt ventricle
femoral artery ---iliac artery --to --descending aorta--to arch aorta -ascending aorta then -AORTIC VALVE- ---enter in left ventricle --to the apex
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* Re:nbme # 2 block 3 -------q1 to q50
  drona99 - 03/13/11 07:53
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Most common cardiomyopathy


Idiopathic (most common)
Genetic causes (25-35%)
Drugs (e.g., doxorubicin, cocaine)
Postpartum state, thiamine deficiency (alcoholism)


Decreased contractility with a decreased EF (
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