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* high yield
  drpvr - 03/17/11 09:16

Vitamin A Night blindness, conjunctival dryness, corneal keratinization

Vitamin D Ricketts - kids, long bone bowing; Osteomalacia-adults, demineralization

Vitamin K Clotting deficiency with prolonged PT

Thiamine (B1) Beriberi - peripheral neuropathy, Cardiomyopathy - dry or wet (high output failure)
Wernicke-Korsakoff - Alcoholics, confabulation, nystagmus, confusion

Niacin Pellagra - Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death

Pyroxidone (B6) Rare, neuropathy, Cheilosis (swollen cracked bright red lips)

Cobalamin (B12) Macrocytosis, Pernicious Anemia- megaloblastic, neuro chg. ataxia, Schilling test , more in Strict Vegitarian.

Folate Macrocytosis, megaloblastic anemia w/o neuro chgs., common in alcoholics

Vitamin C Scurvy, bleeding gums, Connective Tissue problems, Can manifest 1 yr post defic.

Failure to Thrive Org.= decr. wt gain w/ other disease; Nonorg.=growth failure due to neglect ▀stimulation
< 80% wt for Ht

Obesity mild 20-40%, moderate 41-100, severe tubular ; sessile>pedunculated for being CA; familial adeno polyps autodom.

Lactose Intolerance Lactase deficiency, bloating & explosive diarrhea after milk; Ages 10-20

Celiac Sprue Gluten sensitivity (wheat, rye, barley); amenorrhea 1st sx girls, Infants = FTT, abnormal stool, bloating, Adults = malabsorption, vit deficiency; X-ray - dilated loops of bowel with thin mucosal folds; most common cause of malbsorption

Tropical Sprue nutritional defic, small bowel mucosal abnormal; Acquired - Caribbean, India, SE Asia; Megaloblastic Anemia, glossitis, diarrhea, wt loss Tx Folic Acid & Tetracycline

Whipple's Disease Infectious; middle aged men; multi-organ; Thickened mucosal folds, Foamy macrophage with rod shaped bacilli that stain w/periodic acid (Schiff's Reagent)

Intestinal Lymphangiectasia Children & young adults; cong or acquired telangiectasia of intramucosal lymphatic
Massive extremity edema w/ diarrhea, N/V; Tx: low fat w/ triglyceride supplement

Toxic Megacolon Dilation > 6cm, Adults preceded by IBD (UC or Crohn's) Kids preceded by Hirschsprungs Ds; Sx: severely ill, incr. temp, abd pain, rebound, leukocytosis; X-ray - intraluminal gas along continuous seg of dilated bowel; Tx: NPO, IV fluids & electrolytes, Antibiotics & Steroids, Rectal tube may alleviate but can cause perforation

Inguinal Hernia Indirect = infants, persistent processus vaginalis, protrudes thru ring, lateral Inf Epig.
Direct = Adults, medial to ing ring & inf epig artery, Weakness in Hesselbach's

Ulcerative Colitis Colon & Terminal Ileum w/o skip lesions, w/ rectal bleeding, "lead Pipe" on X-ray (shortened, narrowed, loses haustrations) Tx: Sulfasalazine, steroids, Immunosuppresents; Complications=perf, hemorrhage, Toxic Megacolon, Colon CA

Diverticular Disease Diverticulosis = false diverticulae, pearl sign on xray
Diverticulitis = infection, acute abd pain usually on left, may form fistulas to bladder, vagina or skin, CT w/ water soluble contrast during acute attack

Crohn's Disease Granulomatous colitis; No bloody stools, 1st in terminal ileum, transmural, skip lesions, cobblestoning: Complications=small bowel abscess, obstruction, perianal disease, malabsorption, toxic megacolo, Colon CA. Surgery is not curative

Colon CA Right Sided=napkin ring, anemia Left Sided=Apple core, pencil stools; Genetic; Annual rectal>40, Annual Guaiac >50; Flex Sig q3-5y >50; Rectal CA-hematochezia

Volvulus Rotation of Bowel; Newborns & elderly; Double Bubble; Birds Beak on Barium Enema, Tx: Left Sided = decompression; Rt sided & kids = surgery

Intussusception Telescoping of large bowel into an adjacent section; most common cause of obstruction in kids under 2; Episodic Abd pain 1-2 min. Reflex = early vomit; Obstructive = omit late; Currant Jelly Stool; Small Infants = Pallor, sweating, and vomiting. Leukocytosis with hemoconcentration, BE to reduce x 2 before surgery

Necrotizing Enterocolitis Premature, decr. birth weight, older infants with malnutrition; bilious vomit, abd distention, bloody stool, lethargy; Thrombocytopenia; Small Bowel Distention; pneumatosis (air in bowel wall) TX; NG, TPN, IV antibiotics, surgical Rx necrotic part

Cholera Fecal - Oral, Rice Water Stools, Vibro Cholera; Endemic gulfcoast, Asia, Africa, Mid East; Severe dehydration, Metabolic Acidosis, Tx: Tetracycline or Doxycycline

Shigella Dysentery Small bact dose needed, Blood & mucous, Kids worse than adults, Fluid Replacement & Ciprofloxacin

Staph Enteritis Onset 3-6 hrs; "Church Picnic epidemic; N/V/D, HA, fever recovery w/in 24 hrs

Salmonella Enteritis Undercooked Poultry; nausea & cramps => watery &/or bloody diarrhea; No antibiotics prolongs excretion of the organism

Viral Enteritis Norwalk = yr round, Rota (kids) = winter; Coxsackie A1; echo, adeno

Botulism Clostridium Botulinum, neuromuscular; onset 12-36 hrs; N/V/D, cranial nerve palsy, fixed dilated pupils, resp failure, no fever, Wound induced = neuro w/o gi sx
Infants constipation 1st=> cranial nerve sx => cranial nerve Sx => Neuromuscular

Hemorrhagic Colitis E coli 157, cramps, => watery diarrhea => bloody diarrhea Complications= Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic pupura

Pseudomembraneous Colitis Antibiotic induced (clindamycin, ampicillin, cephalosporin) C. Diff; mail -> severe bloody diarrhea; Tx: stop antibiotics, oral metronidazole in severe cases

Acute Pancreatitis Pain radiates to back w/ N/V; Grey Turner's Sign (blue flank) Cullen's Sign (blue at umbilicus; Amylase & Lipase incr. ;
Ranson's Criteria: 3 or more = incr mortality
Admission: >55, gluc>200, LDH >350, AST >250 WBC > 16000
Within 48 hrs: Hct decr. 10%, BUN incr. >5, Ca< 8, PaO2 < 60, Base Def > 4, Fluid Seq>6L

Chronic Pancreatitis ERCP to Dx; Alcoholics, Malabsorption & diabetes are results

Hepatitis Hep A = Fecal oral, shedding before Sx; IG to travelers & contact with HAV infected
Heb B= Blood & STD; HbsAg early if persists = carrier; HbcIGM then HbcIgG for life
HBIG for needle sticks and infants born to + moms; assoc w/ hepatocell CA
Hep C Most common post transfusion hepatitis
Hep D = Co infection with B; Hep E = fecal oral

Cholelithiasis Female, fertile, fat, forty; Ultrasound, RUQ pain after fatty meals, Calcified = preCA

Cholangitis Charcot's Triad = Biliary Colic, Jaundice, Fever; Leukocytosis, incr. Alk Phos

Hepatocellular CA Mets 2x more than primary CA (breast, lung, colon), Budd Chari-thrombosis hep V.
Risk Factors = HBV, HCV, Alcoholic cirrhosis, Aflatoxins (fungal metabolites)

Benign Hep Adenomas oral contraceptives

Exocrine Pancreatic CA Ductal CA, Courvoiser's Law=palpable nontender GB in a jaundiced patient is a head of Pancreas tumor. Tumor Body or Tail=splenic vein obstruction=> splenomegaly, gastritis, esoph varices

Insulinoma Insulin hypersecretion, hypoglycemic symptoms, Insulin levels still incr. after fasting
Whipple Triad: confirms hypoglycemia as source of Sx 1. Hypoglycemia, 2. Relieved with carb ingestion 3. Sx occur while fasting

VIPoma Makes Vasoactive peptide (VIP); Sx WDHA (watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, achlohydria; unexplained secretory diarrhea; laparoscopy for Dx

Glucagonoma tumor of alpha islet cells; 80% women; 80% malignant; Necrolytic Exfoliating Erythema characteristic exfoliating lesion of the extremities

Pompe's Disease a 1,4 glucosidase deficiency; fatal by age 2

VonGierke's Disease glucose-6-phosphatase def.; big liver & kidneys, growth retardation, electrolyte prob.

McArdles Disease musclephosphorylase is absent, muscle cramps & incr. myoglobin after exercise

Jaundice Prehepatic = hemolysis, gilbert's disease, Crigler Najjar; Hepatic = hepatocellular or cholestatic; Post Hepatic = Biliary obstruction, AST & LDH also incr. ;
incr. unconj prehepatic; incr. conj = intrahepatic cholestasis or post hepatic disease ; incr. all fractions = hepatocellular, hyperbilirubinuria = conj bili water soluble

ETOH Hepatic Disease Fatty liver => ETOH hepatitis => cirrhosis; AST incr. > ALT incr. ; incr. PT; decr. II, VII, IX, X Clot

Cirrhosis necrosis and fibrosis, decr. serum albumin, anemia incr. PT, Not curable or reversible

Esophageal Varices veins that expand to circumvent congested hepatic flow; Tx: vasopressin, balloon tamponade, endoscopic sclerotherapy, transjugular hepatoporto shunt (TIPS

Hepatic Encephalopathy altered consciousness, incr. ammonia incr. glutamine in CSF, EEG abnormal

Ascites Complication of hepatic disease; Paracentesis to examine ascitic fluid values should equal serum if incr. albumin = malignant; incr. LDH > 60% of serum = malig or infective;
incr. WBC = infection

GI Bleeding Upper GI = melaena (black tarry) ; Lower GI = hematochezia (bright red) decr. Lig Trietz

Intestinal Obstruction Vomiting common in small bowel, late in lg bowel, High pitched "tinkling" BS.
X-ray - prox dist = lg bowel; dilated loops of bowel with air fluid levels = sm bowel

Ileus Paralytic obstruction of bowel due to loss of peristalsis

Pyloric Stenosis Projectile vomit in neonates, visible peristaltic wave, String Sign

Meconium Ileus Abnormal thick Meconium with undigested protein, associated with CF

Hirschsprung's Disease No autonomic nerves in colon, Obstipation, late vomit, Megacolon, Toxic Enterocolitis if left untreated, BE proximal dilated & distal narrow, Colostomy

If it will help u guys just let me know I'll post rest of the systems
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* Re:high yield
  mibbu - 03/17/11 09:33
  good work... respiratory and cardiovascular systems please  
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* Re:high yield
  puo - 03/17/11 09:40
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* Re:high yield
  srisai - 03/17/11 09:48
  i could 'nt understand these lines.could u plz explain them plz  
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* Re:high yield
  srisai - 03/17/11 09:49
Lactose Intolerance Lactase deficiency, bloating & explosive diarrhea after milk; Ages 10-20

Obesity mild 20-40%, moderate 41-100, severe tubular ; sessile>pedunculated for being CA; familial adeno polyps autodom
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