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* NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
  maryam2009 - 05/11/11 10:59
  Welcome....,Please choose and answer the Qs in order. We are always looking for more volunteers. ... Any help would be appreciated .Thank you.  
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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
  sash11 - 05/11/11 21:59
Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, also urothelial cell carcinoma or UCC) is a type of cancer that typically occurs in the urinary system: the kidney, urinary bladder, and accessory organs. It is the most common type of bladder cancer and cancer of the ureter, urethra, and urachus; it is the second most common type of kidney cancer.
TCC arises from the transitional epithelium, a tissue lining the inner surface of these hollow organs.
TCCs are often multifocal, with 30-40% of patients having more than one tumour at diagnosis. The pattern of growth of TCCs can be papillary, sessile (flat) or carcinoma-in-situ (CIS).
The most common site of TCC metastasis outside the pelvis is bone (35%); of these bone metastases, 40% are in the spine.
When the term "urothelial" is used, it specifically refers to a carcinoma of the urothelium, meaning a TCC of the urinary system.
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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
  raheem - 05/11/11 22:11
  regarding Q4.....calcitero...produced in DCT........i am with you just study every
thing you write :)..realy helpful......thanks
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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
  sash11 - 05/11/11 22:14
  21. B
Factitious Hypoglycemia (self injection of insulin).
Glucose .. dec.
insulin .. Inc
C peptide ... dec
No ketoacidosis.

C. P. serves as an important linker between the A- and the B- chains of insulin and facilitates the efficient assembly, folding, and processing of insulin in the endoplasmic reticulum. Equimolar amounts of C-peptide and insulin are then stored in secretory granules of the pancreatic beta cells and both are eventually released to the portal circulation. Initially, the sole interest in C-peptide was as a marker of insulin secretion and has as such been of great value in furthering the understanding of the pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. During the past decade, however, C-peptide has been found to be a bioactive peptide in its own right, with effects on microvascular blood flow and tissue health.
C-peptide should not be confused with c-reactive protein or Protein C.
Newly diagnosed diabetes patients often get their C-peptide levels measured as a means of distinguishing type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. C-peptide levels are measured instead of insulin levels because insulin concentration in the portal vein ranges from two to ten times higher than in the peripheral circulation. The liver extracts about half the insulin reaching it in the plasma, but this varies with the nutritional state. The pancreas of patients with type 1 diabetes is unable to produce insulin and therefore they will usually have a decreased level of C-peptide, whereas C-peptide levels in type 2 patients are normal or higher than normal. Measuring C-peptide in patients injecting synthetic insulin can help to determine how much of their own natural insulin these patients are still producing, of if they produce any at all.
C-peptide is also used for determining the possibility of gastrinomas associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasm syndromes (MEN 1). Since a significant number of gastrinomas are associated with MEN involving other hormone producing organs (pancreas, parathyroids, and pituitary), higher levels of C-peptide together with the presence of a gastrinoma suggest that organs besides the stomach may harbor neoplasms.
C-peptide levels are checked in women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) to determine degree of insulin resistance.
Both excess body weight and a high plasma concentration of C-peptide predispose men with a subsequent diagnosis of prostate cancer to an increased likelihood of dying of the disease, according to the results of a long-term survival analysis reported in the October 6, 2008
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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
  sash11 - 05/11/11 22:15
  Sorry for long expl...  
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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
  maryam2009 - 05/11/11 22:18
....the patient is exposed to high levels of radiation and this causes acute radiation syndrome

Stages of Acute radiation Syndrome
1) prodrome...nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and dehydration which are GIT Symptom
2) clinical latency,
3) manifest illness, and
4) recovery or death

my answer is GIT

here is the link

posted by yeabiruh -
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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
  maryam2009 - 05/11/11 22:49

The pituitary stalk (also known as the infundibular stalk or simply the infundibulum) is the connection between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary.

It carries axons from the magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus down to the posterior pituitary where they release their hormones into the blood.

This connection is called the hypothalamohypophyseal tract, and is responsible for the release of oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone......

All choices except Oxytocin are hormones of anterior pituitary

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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
  maryam2009 - 05/11/11 23:41

In the question we are asked about heterogeneity(variability)

-The distances between the scores and the mean (Xi-M) are called deviations
-The greater the variety or heterogeneity of the scores, the greater the deviations
-If the scores were clustered around the mean, the deviations would be small, but they would increase as the scores became more spread out or more varied.

-And one way to measure variability (heterogenous population in this case ) is by calculating the value of the Standard Deviation ..
-Generally SD - is an index of variability: the SD increases in value as the distribution becomes more variable. The less the variability in the distribution, the lower the value of the SD.
In short when we get high SD that means high variabilty (high heterogenous population in this case)....low SD means low variabilty (less hetrogenous population )...

So to check variabilty(hterogeneity) the standard deviation values not the mean of the experiment...

is posted by yeabiruh
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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
  maryam2009 - 05/11/11 23:57

Light in either retina sends a signal via CNII to pretectal nuclei in MIDBRAIN that activate bilateral EDINGER-WESTPHAL nuclei;pupil contract bilateraly

Cranial nerve nuclei:

CN III,IV......Midbrain
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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
  maryam2009 - 05/12/11 19:35

Coxsackievirus is a virus that belongs to a family of non enveloped linear positive-sense ssRNA viruses, Picornaviridae and the genus Enterovirus, which also includes poliovirus and echovirus.

Coxsackieviruses are divided into group A and group B viruses

Group A coxsackieviruses tend to infect the skin and mucous membranes, causing herpangina, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC), and hand, foot and mouth (HFM) disease.

Both group A and group B coxsackieviruses can cause nonspecific febrile illnesses, rashes, upper respiratory tract disease, and aseptic meningitis.

Group B coxsackieviruses tend to infect the heart, pleura, pancreas, and liver, causing pleurodynia, myocarditis, pericarditis, and hepatitis (inflammation of the liver not related to the hepatotropic viruses).

Coxsackie B infection of the heart can lead to pericardial effusion. Muffled heart sounds and pulsus paradoxus are signs of this.

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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
  maryam2009 - 05/12/11 19:45

Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes. It is caused by a DNA poxvirus called the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). MCV has no animal reservoir, infecting only humans.

The virus commonly spreads through skin-to-skin contact. This includes sexual contact or touching or scratching the bumps and then touching the skin. Handling objects that have the virus on them (fomites), such as a towel, can also result in infection.Molluscum contagiosum is contagious until the bumps are gone-which, if untreated, may be up to 6 months or longer.

Molluscum contagiosum lesions are flesh-colored, dome-shaped, and pearly in appearance. They are often 15 millimeters in diameter, with a dimpled center. They are generally not painful, but they may itch or become irritated. Picking or scratching the bumps may lead to further infection or scarring.

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