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* NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
 #585303  
  maryam2009 - 05/11/11 10:59
 
  Welcome....,Please choose and answer the Qs in order. We are always looking for more volunteers. ... Any help would be appreciated .Thank you.  
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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
#2394266
  sash11 - 05/12/11 22:03
 
  38. D
Peripheral neuropathy and CNS effects are associated with the use of isoniazid and are due to pyridoxine (vitamin B6) depletion, but are uncommon at doses of 5 mg/kg. Persons with conditions in which neuropathy is common (e.g., diabetes, uremia, alcoholism, malnutrition, HIV-infection), as well as pregnant women and persons with a seizure disorder, may be given pyridoxine (vitamin B6) (1050 mg/day) with isoniazid.
 
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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
#2394272
  maryam2009 - 05/12/11 22:19
 
  39.AA

FF=GFR/RPF.......Angiotrensine II constricts the efferent a. ....>.inc GFR....>inc FF
 
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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
#2394291
  maryam2009 - 05/12/11 22:46
 
  40.AA

The normal PR interval is from 120 ms to 200 ms in length.

The drugs that most commonly cause first-degree heart block are those that increase the refractory time of the AV node, thereby slowing AV conduction.
These include calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, cardiac glycosides, and anything that increases cholinergic activity such as cholinesterase inhibitors.

***CCB***
The calcium channel blockers known as
1. Non-dihydropyridines decrease the force of contraction of the myocardium
such as verapamil or diltiazem, may be avoided (or used with caution) in individuals with cardiomyopathy.
2.Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers are often used to reduce systemic vascular resistance and arterial pressure, but are not used to treat angina...such as Nefidipin

Many calcium channel blockers also slow down the conduction of electrical activity within the heart, by blocking the calcium channel during the plateau phase of the action potential of the heart.
This results in a negative chronotropic effect, or a lowering of heart rate. This can increase the potential for heart block.This results in a negative chronotropic effect, or a lowering of heart rate. This can increase the potential for heart block.

 
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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
#2394296
  maryam2009 - 05/12/11 22:55
 
  41.BB

Anti-dig Fab fragments is an antidote for Cardiac glycosides toxicity

 
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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
#2394310
  maryam2009 - 05/12/11 23:15
 
  42.DD

Changes in the variables in Starling's equation can contribute to the formation of edema either by an increase in hydrostatic pressure within the blood vessel, a decrease in the oncotic pressure within the blood vessel or an increase in vessel wall permeability. The latter has two effects. It allows water to flow more freely and it reduces the oncotic pressure difference by allowing protein to leave the vessel more easily.
 
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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
#2394325
  maryam2009 - 05/12/11 23:25
 
  43.CC

P pili mediate the binding of uropathogenic E. coli to a digalactoside receptor determinant present in the urinary tract epithelium.
 
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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
#2394330
  maryam2009 - 05/12/11 23:34
 
  44.DD

No visible change by light microscopy in first 2-4 hours
contraction bands visible after 1-2 hours ..early coagulative necrosis after 4 hours.release of contents of necrotic cells into blood stream and the beginnig of neutrophil emigration
 
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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
#2394351
  maryam2009 - 05/12/11 23:59
 
  45.BB

Normal portal pressure is generally defined between 5 and 10 mm Hg. However, once the portal pressure rises to 12 mm Hg or greater, complications can arise, such as varices and ascites.
Treathment is

1.by diuretic drugs

2.by surgery to join the portal vein to the inferior vena cava (bypassing the liver)

3.implanting a stent within the liver to join portal tract veins to a hepatic vein tributary (TIPSS - transcutaneous intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt)




 
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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
#2394363
  maryam2009 - 05/13/11 00:11
 
  46.CC

Cohort study
It is observational and prospective.....compares between a group with a given risk factors.(Bus driveres......driving in seated position during 20 years) to a group without to assess (Bus condactors ...walking...)whether the risk factor increase the liklihood(MI) of disease.
 
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* Re:NBME 7 block 2 q 1 to 50
#2394489
  god99 - 05/13/11 10:48
 
  47. D
An esophageal motility study (EMS) or esophageal manometry is a test to assess motor function of the Upper Esophageal Sphincter (UES), Esophageal body and Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES).
Indications: An EMS is typically done to evaluate suspected disorders of motility or peristalsis of the esophagus. These include achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus and hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter. These disorders typically present with dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, usually to both solids and liquids even initially. Other patients with spasm disorders may have the test done to diagnose chest pain thought not to be of cardiac cause. The test is not useful for anatomical disorders of the esophagus (that is, disorders that distort the anatomy of the esophagus), such as peptic strictures and esophageal cancer.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esophageal_motility_study
 
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